Jason S. Miyares
Attorney General of Virginia

VIRGINIA'S HUMAN TRAFFICKING LAWS

There are a number of laws in the state of Virginia targeting sex and labor trafficking:

§ 18.2-355: Taking, detaining, etc., person for prostitution, etc., or consenting thereto; human trafficking.

Any person who: (1) For purposes of prostitution or unlawful sexual intercourse, takes any person into, or persuades, encourages or causes any person to enter, a bawdy place, or takes or causes such person to be taken to any place against his or her will for such purposes; or (2) Takes or detains a person against his or her will with the intent to compel such person, by force, threats, persuasions, menace or duress, to marry him or her or to marry any other person, or to be defiled; or (3) Being parent, guardian, legal custodian or one standing in loco parentis of a person, consents to such person being taken or detained by any person for the purpose of prostitution or unlawful sexual intercourse; or (4) For purposes of prostitution, takes any minor into, or persuades, encourages, or causes any minor to enter, a bawdy place, or takes or causes such person to be taken to any place for such purposes; is guilty of pandering. A violation of subdivision (1), (2), or (3) is punishable as a Class 4 felony. A violation of subdivision (4) is punishable as a Class 3 felony.

§ 18.2-356. Receiving money for procuring person; penalties.

Any person who receives any money or other valuable thing for or on account of (i) procuring for or placing in a house of prostitution or elsewhere any person for the purpose of causing such person to engage in unlawful sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus or any act in violation of § 18.2-361 or (ii) causing any person to engage in forced labor or services, concubinage, prostitution, or the manufacture of any obscene material or child pornography is guilty of a Class 4 felony. Any person who violates clause (i) or (ii) with a person under the age of 18 is guilty of a Class 3 felony.

§ 18.2-357. Receiving money from earnings of male or female prostitute; penalties.

Any person who shall knowingly receive any money or other valuable thing from the earnings of any male or female engaged in prostitution, except for a consideration deemed good and valuable in law, shall be guilty of pandering, punishable as a Class 4 felony. Any person who violates this section by receiving money or other valuable thing from a person under the age of 18 is guilty of a Class 3 felony.

§ 18.2-47. Abduction and kidnapping defined; punishment.

A. Any person who, by force, intimidation or deception, and without legal justification or excuse, seizes, takes, transports, detains or secretes another person with the intent to deprive such other person of his personal liberty or to withhold or conceal him from any person, authority or institution lawfully entitled to his charge, shall be deemed guilty of "abduction."

B. Any person who, by force, intimidation or deception, and without legal justification or excuse, seizes, takes, transports, detains or secretes another person with the intent to subject him to forced labor or services shall be deemed guilty of "abduction." For purposes of this subsection, the term "intimidation" shall include destroying, concealing, confiscating, withholding, or threatening to withhold a passport, immigration document, or other governmental identification or threatening to report another as being illegally present in the United States.

C. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any law-enforcement officer in the performance of his duty. The terms "abduction" and "kidnapping" shall be synonymous in this Code. Abduction for which no punishment is otherwise prescribed shall be punished as a Class 5 felony.

D. If an offense under subsection A is committed by the parent of the person abducted and punishable as contempt of court in any proceeding then pending, the offense shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor in addition to being punishable as contempt of court. However, such offense, if committed by the parent of the person abducted and punishable as contempt of court in any proceeding then pending and the person abducted is removed from the Commonwealth by the abducting parent, shall be a Class 6 felony in addition to being punishable as contempt of court.

§ 18.2-48. Abduction with intent to extort money or for immoral purpose.

Bills amending this Section

Abduction (i) of any person with the intent to extort money or pecuniary benefit, (ii) of any person with intent to defile such person, (iii) of any child under sixteen years of age for the purpose of concubinage or prostitution, (iv) of any person for the purpose of prostitution, or (v) of any minor for the purpose of manufacturing child pornography shall be punishable as a Class 2 felony. If the sentence imposed for a violation of (ii), (iii), (iv), or (v) includes a term of confinement less than life imprisonment, the judge shall impose, in addition to any active sentence, a suspended sentence of no less than 40 years. This suspended sentence shall be suspended for the remainder of the defendant's life subject to revocation by the court.

§ 18.2-346. Prostitution; commercial sexual conduct; commercial exploitation of a minor; penalties.

Bills amending this Section

A. Any person who, for money or its equivalent, (i) commits adultery, fornication, or any act in violation of §18.2-361, performs cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus upon or by another person, or engages in anal intercourse or (ii) offers to commit adultery, fornication, or any act in violation of § 18.2-361, perform cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus upon or by another person, or engage in anal intercourse and thereafter does any substantial act in furtherance thereof is guilty of prostitution, which is punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor. B. Any person who offers money or its equivalent to another for the purpose of engaging in sexual acts as enumerated in subsection A and thereafter does any substantial act in furtherance thereof is guilty of solicitation of prostitution, which is punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor. However, any person who solicits prostitution from a minor (i) 16 years of age or older is guilty of a Class 6 felony or (ii) younger than 16 years of age is guilty of a Class 5 felony.

§ 18.2-348. Aiding prostitution or illicit sexual intercourse, etc.

It is unlawful for any person or any officer, employee, or agent of any firm, association, or corporation, with knowledge of, or good reason to believe, the immoral purpose of such visit, to take or transport or assist in taking or transporting, or offer to take or transport on foot or in any way, any person to a place, whether within or without any building or structure, used or to be used for the purpose of lewdness, assignation, or prostitution within the Commonwealth, or to procure or assist in procuring for the purpose of illicit sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus or any act violative of § 18.2-361, or to give any information or direction to any person with intent to enable such person to commit an act of prostitution.

§ 40.1-28.8 et. seq. Virginia Minimum Wage Act.
§ 40.1-11.1. Employment of illegal immigrants.

It shall be unlawful and constitute a Class 1 misdemeanor for any employer or any person acting as an agent for an employer, or any person who, for a fee, refers an alien who cannot provide documents indicating that he or she is legally eligible for employment in the United States for employment to an employer, or an officer, agent or representative of a labor organization to knowingly employ, continue to employ, or refer for employment any alien who cannot provide documents indicating that he or she is legally eligible for employment in the United States. Permits issued by the United States Department of Justice authorizing an alien to work in the United States shall constitute proof of eligibility for employment. All employment application forms used by State and local governments and privately owned businesses operating in the Commonwealth on and after January 1, 1978, shall ask prospective employees if they are legally eligible for employment in the United States. The provisions of this section shall not be deemed to require any employer to use employment application forms.

§ 18.2-46.1: Predicate Crimes.

"Predicate criminal act" means (i) an act of violence; (ii) any violation of § 18.2-31, 18.2- 42, 18.2-46.3, 18.2-51,18.2-51.1, 18.2-51.2, 18.2-51.3, 18.2-51.6, 18.2-52, 18.2-52.1, 18.2- 53, 18.2-53.1, 18.2-55, 18.2-56.1, 18.2-57, 18.2-57.2, 18.2-59, 18.2-83, 18.2-89, 18.2-90, 18.2- 95, 18.2-108.1, 18.2-121, 18.2-127, 18.2-128, 18.2-137, 18.2-138, 18.2-146, 18.2-147, 18.2- 248.01, 18.2-248.03, 18.2-255, 18.2-255.2, 18.2-279, 18.2-282.1, 18.2-286.1, 18.2-287.4, 18.2- 289, 18.2-300, 18.2-308.1, 18.2-308.2, 18.2-308.2:01, 18.2-308.4, 18.2-355, 18.2-356, 18.2-357, or 18.2-357.1; (iii) a felony violation of § 18.2-60.3; (iv) a felony violation of § 18.2-248 or of 18.2-248.1 or a conspiracy to commit a felony violation of § 18.2-248 or 18.2-248.1; (v) any violation of a local ordinance adopted pursuant to § 15.2-1812.2; or (vi) any substantially similar offense under the laws of another state or territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, or the United States.

§ 18.2-47. Abduction and kidnapping defined; punishment.

A. Any person who, by force, intimidation or deception, and without legal justification or excuse, seizes, takes, transports, detains or secretes another person with the intent to deprive such other person of his personal liberty or to withhold or conceal him from any person, authority or institution lawfully entitled to his charge, shall be deemed guilty of "abduction."

B. Any person who, by force, intimidation or deception, and without legal justification or excuse, seizes, takes, transports, detains or secretes another person with the intent to subject him to forced labor or services shall be deemed guilty of "abduction." For purposes of this subsection, the term "intimidation" shall include destroying, concealing, confiscating, withholding, or threatening to withhold a passport, immigration document, or other governmental identification or threatening to report another as being illegally present in the United States.

C. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any law-enforcement officer in the performance of his duty. The terms "abduction" and "kidnapping" shall be synonymous in this Code. Abduction for which no punishment is otherwise prescribed shall be punished as a Class 5 felony.

D. If an offense under subsection A is committed by the parent of the person abducted and punishable as contempt of court in any proceeding then pending, the offense shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor in addition to being punishable as contempt of court. However, such offense, if committed by the parent of the person abducted and punishable as contempt of court in any proceeding then pending and the person abducted is removed from the Commonwealth by the abducting parent, shall be a Class 6 felony in addition to being punishable as contempt of court.

§§ 18.2-512&13: Business & Street Gang Liability.

"Racketeering activity" means to commit, attempt to commit, conspire to commit, or to solicit, coerce, or intimidate another person to commit two or more of the following offenses: Article 2.1 (§ 18.2-46.1 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of this title, § 18.2-460; a felony offense of §§ 3.2- 4212, 3.2-4219, 10.1-1455, 18.2-31, 18.2-32, 18.2-32.1, 18.2-33, 18.2-35, Article 2.2 (§ 18.2- 46.4 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of this title, §§ 18.2-47, 18.2-48, 18.2-48.1, 18.2-49, 18.2-51, 18.2- 51.2, 18.2-52, 18.2-53, 18.2-55, 18.2-58, 18.2-59, 18.2-77, 18.2-79, 18.2-80, 18.2-89, 18.2- 90, 18.2-91, 18.2-92, 18.2-93, 18.2-95, Article 4 (§ 18.2-111 et seq.) of Chapter 5 of this title, Article 1 (§18.2-168 et seq.) of Chapter 6 of this title, §§ 18.2-178, 18.2-186, Article 6 (§ 18.2- 191 et seq.) of Chapter 6 of this title, Article 9 (§ 18.2-246.1 et seq.) of Chapter 6 of this title, § 18.2-246.13, Article 1 (§ 18.2-247 et seq.) of Chapter 7 of this title, §§ 18.2-279, 18.2- 286.1, 18.2-289, 18.2-300, 18.2-308.2, 18.2-308.2:1, 18.2-328, 18.2-348, 18.2-355, 18.2- 356, 18.2-357, 18.2-357.1, 18.2-368, 18.2-369, 18.2-374.1, Article 8 (§ 18.2-433.1 et seq.) of Chapter 9 of this title, Article 1 (§ 18.2-434 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of this title, Article 2 (§ 18.2- 438 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of this title, Article 3 (§ 18.2-446 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of this title, Article 1.1 (§ 18.2-498.1 et seq.) of Chapter 12 of this title, § 3.2-6571, 18.2-516, 32.1-314, 58.1- 1008.2, 58.1-1017, or 58.1-1017.1; or any substantially similar offenses under the laws of any other state, the District of Columbia, the United States or its territories.

§ 18.2-348. Aiding prostitution or illicit sexual intercourse, etc.

It is unlawful for any person or any officer, employee, or agent of any firm, association, or corporation, with knowledge of, or good reason to believe, the immoral purpose of such visit, to take or transport or assist in taking or transporting, or offer to take or transport on foot or in any way, any person to a place, whether within or without any building or structure, used or to be used for the purpose of lewdness, assignation, or prostitution within the Commonwealth, or to procure or assist in procuring for the purpose of illicit sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus or any act violative of § 18.2-361, or to give any information or direction to any person with intent to enable such person to commit an act of prostitution.